Journal of Official Statistics, Vol.21, No.2, 2005. pp. 309–323
Data Swapping: Variations on a Theme by Dalenius and Reiss
Stephen E. Fienberg and Julie McIntyre
Abstract:Data swapping, a term introduced in 1978 by Dalenius and Reiss for a new method of statistical disclosure protection in confidential databases, has taken on new meanings and been linked to new statistical methodologies over the intervening twenty-five years. This article revisits the original (1982) published version of the Dalenius-Reiss data swapping article and then traces the developments of statistical disclosure limitation methods that can be thought of as rooted in the original concept. The emphasis here, as in the original contribution, is on both disclosure protection and the release of statistically usable databases.
Keywords:Bounds table cell entries, constrained perturbation, contingency tables, marginal releases, minimal sufficient statistics, rank swapping
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